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The Judicial Branch, providing security and constitutional security.

The Judicial Branch of the Commonwealth of Dracul

Where the Executive and Legislative branches are elected by the people, members of the Judicial Branch are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Constitution, which establishes the Judicial Branch, leaves Parliament significant discretion to determine the shape and structure of the federal judiciary. Even the number of Supreme Court Justices is left to Parliament — at times there have been as few as one. The Constitution also grants Parliament the power to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, and to that end Parliament has established the Commonwealth of Dracul district courts, which try most federal cases, and 2 Commonwealth of Dracul courts of appeals, which review appealed district court cases.


Federal judges can only be removed through impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate. Judges and justices serve no fixed term — they serve until their death, retirement, or conviction by the Senate. By design, this insulates them from the temporary passions of the public and allows them to apply the law with only justice in mind, and not electoral or political concerns.


Generally, Parliament determines the jurisdiction of the federal courts. In some cases, however — such as in the example of a dispute between one or more D.R. states — the Constitution grants the Supreme Court original jurisdiction, an authority that cannot be stripped by Parliament.

The courts only try actual cases and controversies — a party must show that it has been harmed in order to bring suit in court. This means that the courts do not issue advisory opinions on the constitutionality of laws or the legality of actions if the ruling would have no practical effect. Cases brought before the judiciary typically proceed from district court to appellate court and may even end at the Supreme Court, although the Supreme Court hears comparatively few cases each year.


Federal courts enjoy the sole power to interpret the law, determine the constitutionality of the law, and apply it to individual cases. The courts, like Parliament, can compel the production of evidence and testimony through the use of a subpoena. The inferior courts are constrained by the decisions of the Supreme Court — once the Supreme Court interprets a law, inferior courts must apply the Supreme Court’s interpretation to the facts of a particular case.

The Judicial Process

Where the Executive and Legislative branches are elected by the people, members of the Judicial Branch are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.


The Constitution, which establishes the Judicial Branch, leaves Parliament significant discretion to determine the shape and structure of the federal judiciary. Even the number of Supreme Court Justices is left to Parliament — at times there have been as few as one. The Constitution also grants Parliament the power to establish courts inferior to the Supreme Court, and to that end Parliament has established the Commonwealth of Dracul district courts, which try most federal cases, and 2 Commonwealth of Dracul courts of appeals, which review appealed district court cases.


Federal judges can only be removed through impeachment by the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate. Judges and justices serve no fixed term — they serve until their death, retirement, or conviction by the Senate. By design, this insulates them from the temporary passions of the public and allows them to apply the law with only justice in mind, and not electoral or political concerns.


Generally, Parliament determines the jurisdiction of the federal courts. In some cases, however — such as in the example of a dispute between one or more D.R. states — the Constitution grants the Supreme Court original jurisdiction, an authority that cannot be stripped by Parliament.

The courts only try actual cases and controversies — a party must show that it has been harmed in order to bring suit in court. This means that the courts do not issue advisory opinions on the constitutionality of laws or the legality of actions if the ruling would have no practical effect. Cases brought before the judiciary typically proceed from district court to appellate court and may even end at the Supreme Court, although the Supreme Court hears comparatively few cases each year.


Federal courts enjoy the sole power to interpret the law, determine the constitutionality of the law, and apply it to individual cases. The courts, like Parliament, can compel the production of evidence and testimony through the use of a subpoena. The inferior courts are constrained by the decisions of the Supreme Court — once the Supreme Court interprets a law, inferior courts must apply the Supreme Court’s interpretation to the facts of a particular case.

  • The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Dracul guarantees that every person accused of wrongdoing has the right to a fair trial before a competent judge and a jury of one’s peers.
  • Multiple Amendments to the Constitution provide additional protections for those accused of a crime. These include:
  • A guarantee that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without the due process of law
  • Protection against being tried for the same crime twice (“double jeopardy”)
  • The right to a speedy trial by an impartial jury
  • The right to cross-examine witnesses, and to call witnesses to support their case
  • The right to legal representation
  • The right to avoid self-incrimination
  • Protection from excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments

Criminal proceedings can be conducted under either state or federal law, depending on the nature and extent of the crime. A criminal legal procedure typically begins with an arrest by a law enforcement officer. If a grand jury chooses to deliver an indictment, the accused will appear before a judge and be formally charged with a crime, at which time he or she may enter a plea.


The defendant is given time to review all the evidence in the case and to build a legal argument. Then, the case is brought to trial and decided by a jury. If the defendant is determined to be not guilty of the crime, the charges are dismissed. Otherwise, the judge determines the sentence, which can include prison time, a fine, or even execution.


Civil cases are similar to criminal ones, but instead of arbitrating between the state and a person or organization, they deal with disputes between individuals or organizations. If a party believes that it has been wronged, it can file suit in civil court to attempt to have that wrong remedied through an order to cease and desist, alter behavior, or award monetary damages. After the suit is filed and evidence is gathered and presented by both sides, a trial proceeds as in a criminal case. If the parties involved waive their right to a jury trial, the case can be decided by a judge; otherwise, the case is decided and damages awarded by a jury.

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